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Flower propagation

Miss Chen
05월26일
Plants produce new individuals similar to themselves, which is called reproduction. This is a natural phenomenon that plants reproduce and continue species, and it is also one of the basic characteristics of plant life. There are five main propagation methods of flowers: sowing, cutting, rameting, grafting and layering.
1. Sowing and breeding



basic concept

The sowing process is as follows: sterilize the soil in the sun, irrigate it with water, sprinkle the seeds evenly on the soil layer, then choose to cover the soil or not cover the leaves according to the size of the seeds, keep the soil moist, but do not accumulate water, move the flowerpot to the place with scattered light in time after the seeds germinate, and apply some liquid fertilizer, so that the seedlings can be transplanted when they have 2 ~ 3 leaves.

matters need attention

1. The sowing time of flowers is regular. Generally, open-field annual flowers and woody flowers are sown from March to April in spring, and the daily average temperature is stable at 15℃; open-field biennial flowers are mostly sown from August to September in autumn. The sowing date of greenhouse flowers often depends on the required flowering period. There is no strict seasonal restriction, but it is generally necessary to avoid the coldest and hottest seasons.

2. Flower seeds should absorb enough water before germination, and then they can extend radicle and germinate slowly. In order to meet the temperature, moisture and oxygen conditions required for seed germination, it is best to put the seeds in gauze bags before sowing, soak them in warm water at 40℃ for 24 hours, then spread them out on wet gauze, keep the gauze moist, and then sow them after the radicle of the seeds breaks through the seed coat.

3. Flower seeds are divided into four grades: large, medium, small and fine particles. The grain size of large seeds is above 0.5 cm, medium seeds are 0.2 ~ 0.5 cm, small seeds are 0.1 ~ 0.2 cm, and micro seeds are below 0.1 cm. Whether it is large, medium or small seeds, the sowing depth should be 2 ~ 3 times of the seed diameter. Large seeds can be sown in holes, the depth of which is 23 times of the diameter of the seeds, and the soil is flat with the bed surface after sowing; Medium-sized and small-sized seeds are first removed from the bed surface and then covered with a thin layer of soil; fine-sized seeds do not need to be covered with soil.

2. Cutting propagation

basic concept

Cutting propagation means taking a part of vegetative organs of a plant, inserting it into loose and wet soil or fine sand, and using its regeneration ability, making it take root and take branches to become a new plant.

Cuttage propagation
matters need attention

1. As the mother plant of cutting, it is required to have excellent varieties, vigorous growth and no diseases and insect pests, and the growing and aging plants should not be selected as the mother plant of cutting. On the same plant, the cuttings should choose branches whose middle and upper parts are sunny and full, and it is better to have shorter internodes, full bud heads and thick branches and leaves. On the same branch, hardwood cutting should choose the middle and lower parts of branches, because the middle and lower parts store more nutrients, while the tip tissues are often not full.

2. Cutting should be carried out immediately after cutting the sowing strips. Cutting strips such as rose, hibiscus syriacus, and clover, which are cut in late autumn, can be cut well, tied into bundles, buried in flowerpots with wet sand, and placed in a place where the indoor temperature is kept at 0~5℃. Pay attention not to make the sand too dry in winter, and then wait for the early spring of the following year before cutting. Flowers such as Chinese rose can also be cut in plastic shed in winter. Cuttings of succulent plants such as cactus should be dried in a ventilated place for about a week after cutting, and then cut when the cut mouth is slightly dry, otherwise it is easy to rot. Cutting cuttings of Begonia fortunei, oleander, etc., can be soaked in clear water after cutting, and can be directly planted into pots after rooting. For Chinese rose, Milan, etc., dip the lower mouth of cuttings in the injection of vitamin B, and then take it out for a minute or two, so that the liquid medicine can be sucked into cuttings and then inserted into coarse sand. This treatment can promote rooting.

3. After cuttage, management should be strengthened to create good rooting conditions for cuttings. Generally, rooting of flower cuttings requires both soil moisture and air circulation. Cover the cutting pots or beds with a cover made of glass plate or plastic film to keep the temperature and humidity. Small bricks should be placed under the hood to allow air to flow in. In summer and early autumn, the cuttage pots should be placed in shade during the day and in the open air at night; when the temperature is not enough in early, spring, late autumn and winter, they can be placed in warm places or greenhouses, but attention must be paid to the adjustment of temperature and humidity. In the future, according to the rooting speed of cuttings, gradually strengthen the illumination.

3. Branch propagation
basic concept

Ramet propagation is a method of dividing the sprouting branches, clumping branches, sucking buds and creeping branches of flowers from their mother plants and planting them as independent new plants, which is generally applicable to perennial flowers. The ramet method can be divided into two types: full division method and half division method.

division propagation
Full division method: dig out all the roots of the mother plants from the soil, and divide them into several small clusters by hand or scissors. Each small cluster can carry 1 ~ 3 branches, with roots at the lower part, and transplant them to other places or flowerpots respectively. After 3 ~ 4 years, it can be divided again.

Half-division method: when dividing plants, it is not necessary to dig out all the mother plants, but only dig out the soil around, on both sides or on one side of the mother plants to expose the root system, cut them into small clusters with l3 branches with roots at the lower part, and transplant these small clusters to other places to grow into new plants.

matters need attention

1. ramets have a high survival rate because they have complete roots, stems and leaves, but the number of reproduction is limited. This method is commonly used in strong species in tillering ability, such as Chimonanthus praecox, brown bamboo, phoenix-tailed bamboo, peony, peony, orchid, evergreen, Hosta Hosta, etc. In addition, small plants such as chlorophytum and Saxifraga stolonifera, and sucking buds (twigs) produced at the base of Sedum alfredii and Clematis chinensis in pulpy plants can be isolated and planted at any time.

2. Generally, flowers that bloom in early spring should be divided after stopping growing in autumn, and flowers that bloom in summer and autumn should be divided before sprouting in early spring.

4. Grafting and propagation

basic concept

Grafting is to use a part of the vegetative organs of plants to graft on other plants. Branches used for grafting are called scions, buds used are called grafted buds, grafted plants are called rootstocks, and grafted seedlings are called grafted seedlings. Grafting propagation is a good seed method for propagating clones, which is often used in plum blossom and rose. The principle of grafting survival is that the cambium of two plants with affinity heals at the junction, which makes the catheter and sieve tube communicate with each other to form a new individual.

Matters needing attention in grafting propagation

1. Grafting includes several methods, such as branch grafting, bud grafting, butt grafting (peeling off part of cortex of two plants with roots in bananas which are easy to approach in blue phase, and then joining with each other), pith grafting (scion and rootstock heal through pith), root grafting (using root as anvil), etc. However, no matter which method, attention should be paid to the management of temperature, light and water after grafting.

2. It is best to choose different plants which belong to the same genus or the same species as scions for rootstocks, because they have strong affinity, fast graft healing and high survival rate.

3. Rootstocks should have developed roots and strong growth, adapt to the local soil and climate, and have good resistance to pests.

4. Branches with full growth and full buds should be selected for scions.

5. The grafting season varies with different varieties of flowers and trees. For example, bud grafting for clove is mostly carried out in summer, and branch grafting for fuso can be carried out in spring and summer.

5, layering propagation

basic concept

Sliced propagation is a propagation method in which the branches attached to the mother plant form adventitious roots, and then cut off the mother plant to become a new individual. The layering propagation is mostly used for woody flowers which are easy to take root naturally in stems and internodes, but not easy to take root by cutting. The layering time can be carried out all the year round in warm areas, while it is mostly carried out in spring in the north. When layering propagation layering, in order to interrupt the downward transmission of organic substances (such as sugar, auxin and other substances) from the upper ends of leaves and branches, and make these substances accumulate on the upper parts of branches for use when rooting, ring peeling can be carried out. Applying IBA auxin to girdling site can promote rooting.

There are three layering methods: ordinary layering method, soil piling layering method and high branch layering method.

1. The common layering method is mostly used for vine flowers with soft and slender branches, such as Yingchun, Honeysuckle and Lingxiao. When layering, the periphery of the mother plant is bent into an arc shape, the bent protruding part is cut and buried in the soil, and then the bent part is fixed with hooks, and the mother plant can be cut off after it takes root, and then transplanted.

2. The method of stacking soil and layering is suitable for deciduous shrubs with strong tufts and hard branches that are not easy to bend, such as Redwood, Ulmus pumila and Rosa roxburghii. In early summer, the lower part of its branches is peeled for about 1 cm at a distance of about 25 cm from the soil, and then it is cultivated around the mother plant, and the lower part of the whole plant cluster is buried in the soil, and the soil pile is kept moist. After rooting and before sprouting in the next spring, dig the mound, cut the branches from the base to separate the mother plants, and then transplant them separately.

3. High-branch layering method is mostly used for evergreen flowers and trees, such as white orchid, Milan, smiling, etc. Generally, the layering of high branches is carried out in the peak growth season. The well-developed biennial branches are selected and peeled annularly at their proper positions. Then peat soil, mountain mud, moss, etc. are packed in plastic bags, which are used to wrap the branches, pour water through them, and fasten and fix the bags tightly. In the future, pay attention to timely water supply to keep the culture soil moist. After the branches take root, cut off the mother body from the bottom of the bag, remove the wrapped plastic bag, plant it in a pot with soil, and keep it in a cool place. After a large number of new shoots germinate, see you again.

The most obvious advantage of layering propagation is that it is easy to survive and can keep the characteristics of original varieties. This method can be used for some varieties that are difficult to reproduce by other propagation methods.
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